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Black Sand: The History of Titanium PDF

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It took some of the best metallurgical minds of the twentieth century to turn black sand into titanium. Until the 1930s, titanium was merely a laboratory curiosity, dangling before the eyes of metallurgists the prospect of great strength combined with light-weight properties. It, however, defied attempts to make it in quantity until the eve of World War II when William Kroll developed a unique process. Convinced of the metal's value, the US Armed Forces jump-started the titanium industry in the 1950s with huge amounts of Federal money. But titanium was both a dream and a nightmare, grudgingly yielding its secrets. Not until the top-secret spy plane, the SR-71 Blackbird, did the metal come of age. This story is rich in drama because titanium demanded maximum effort from a generation of metallurgists.
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