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Online 2015 USA Conference Proceedings
Please note the following pdf files are Secured and only allows visitors View Only Capability as a result of the presenters request.

Also note:  If the presenter has not authorized distribution of the slides, they are not included in the online proceedings.  Video Proceedings will be available on this page soon.

2015 Executive Summary Report

Leach, Wade (October 2015) Titanium Demand and Trends in the Airplane Market, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Titanium is a preferred option in a wide variety of airframe applications from small fasteners weighing a few grams to landing gear and large wing beams weighing close to one ton.  New applications for titanium will drive increased usage in the next generation of aircraft.  The combination of mechanical properties, low density and compatibility with composite structures make it an excellent material for use in aerostructures.  This presentation discusses the market trends, the applications and how the industry is answering the growth challenge.


Seiner, Henry (October 2015) The Evolution of Jet Engines, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Today’s engine market is very different than the one we saw in the 1960s during the dawn of the jet engine. Basic engine technology hasn’t changed, but engine size and performance characteristics have evolved over time. In addition, there has been a parallel evolution related to the engine producers.  This presentation will examine the history and consider the future including the role titanium will play in the next generation of jet engines for commercial aerospace.


Roegner, Eric (October 2015) Titanium in the Military: Driving Market Growth Through Innovation, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Mr. Roegner’s discussion is a call to action for ITA members to work outside of the box to advance the use of titanium in military through innovation.


Metz, Michael (October 2015) Overview of Russian Market for Titanium Mill Products, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

Demand for titanium in the Russian Federation is growing significantly, with overall demand expected to double between 2010 and 2017. Aircraft industry demand is the primary driver for growth, along with solid demand from power generation, shipbuilding, and general industrial uses for titanium.


Cain, Kevin (October 2015) Global Industrial Titanium Industry Trends History & Forecast, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


The Power Generation, Oil & Gas, Desalination and Chemical Process markets continue to be the lifeblood of the industrial titanium industry.  The opportunities which exist in these industries as well as other markets will be presented.  The influences on all of these markets are varied from regional economic growth to the production of shale gas.  The influences and resulting opportunities that exist today will be the basis for the Global Industrial Market Trends and Forecast.


KagamiKazuo (October 2015) Outlook on Current Titanium Trends in Japan, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Titanium industries in Japan have been taking a leading role in the development of new applications of mill products in industrial markets, while producing high quality titanium sponge based on the strict quality standards in aerospace industries.

We will continue contributing to the development of the world titanium industry by new application development as well as continuous quality improvement and stable supply through technological innovation and strengthening production capability.


MaplesKevin (October 2015) Advancements in Insert Cutting Edges and Coating Developments Mean Greater Productivity, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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Today, the aerospace industry is flourishing. However, this has created a shortage of machine tools to properly process the parts required to meet demands for future plane orders.

This dilemma places extreme pressure on today’s aerospace manufacturers to find better, cheaper and more efficient ways to machine parts and components. Carefully considering the advancements in cutting tool inserts with an emphasis on cutting edges and coatings for machining titanium and titanium alloys is certainly an alternative that needs exploring.

Titanium and titanium alloys are tough, wear resistant materials that work-harden very easily under machine cutting conditions. Walter USA is working closely with the aerospace industry to develop products that help remove heat from the material cutting process, which is the number one contributing factor for edge breakdown and failure of the cutting tool insert.

This presentation will focus on the latest developments in providing insert tooling where grain structures are more aligned in a vertical pattern. In addition, a detailed look at new coating processes that reflect heat away from the insert and into the chip will be presented.

Attendees will benefit from learning how insert edge wear is reduced, permitting smooth chip flow and less adhesion to the cutting edge of the insert surface, which leads to greater tool life. Attendees should leave this session with the knowledge that optimizing insert tooling will lead to a reduction in process time, better efficiency and greater productivity improvements. 


FitzReinhard (October 2015) Machining Titanium Requires a Systematic Approach In Order to Lower Production Costs, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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With the tremendous growth of Titanium consumption over the last years there is also an enormous and growing request of manufacturing capacity, especially in the Aerospace industry.  With modern aircraft manufacturers there is a trend towards increasingly larger and more complex parts, which must be produced reliably, under constant process surveillance and to close tolerances. Higher metal removal rate, longer tool life and lower production cost are the driving key words. Only with a rigid and stiff machine tool titanium can be machined successfully. Core competence for this achievement is in the depth knowledge and experience in process stability leading to a balanced machine design. For efficient Titanium cutting the best available operation strategy, tools and coolant systems must be applied. Starrag works on all levels with a systematic approach to locate and improve limiting factors. The machines are built to benefit the full potential of this operation strategies. In cutting Titanium following results could be achieved: cutting speed > 491 sfm, cutting depth > 4 in, metal removal rate > 49 in3/min


RadtkeWilliam (October 2015) Machining Titanium the Cool Way, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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Everyone involved in machining titanium understands the increasing demand for faster cutting, better finishes and longer tool life. However, these demands are often at odds with one another.

Faster machining greatly increases cutting temperatures which leads to tool degradation and poor surface finishes. In turn, this leads to generating additional finish passes to improve dimensional tolerance and surface finish, which adds time to the machining process.

Working closely with aerospace customers, Walter USA, LLC., is working to find solutions to lower costs. One particular area centers on machining with CO2. This process, properly named CryoTec at Walter addresses the challenges CO2 machining creates in the development of cutting tools.

In this session, attendees will learn how the CryoTec process reduces cutting zone temperatures to improve tool life and productivity. In addition, attendees will gain a greater understanding of how CryoTec is better for the environment, produces a clean machined part and generates many additional benefits for the customer.


CochelinThomas (October 2015) Key Strategic Enablers for A Successful Airbus Titanium Supply Chain, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


GonçalvesWaldir Gomes (October 2015) Embraer Executive Jets, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


ShafferWilliam (October 2015) Boeing: Commercial Airplanes Outlook and Vision for Titanium, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

Klausner, James(October 2015) Innovating the Future of Titanium Production at the U.S. Department of Energy (ARPA-E), Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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The Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) is a newly created agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. ARPA-E has a mission to create transformative energy technologies that will enhance energy efficiency, reduce emissions, and reduce the U.S. reliance on energy imports. The agency is tasked with looking at the current and future energy needs for the U.S. and identifying gaps in technology to meet those needs. This talk will discuss transformative titanium extraction processes being developed by ARPA-E that promise to deliver low cost titanium powder (<$4/kg) extracted from low grade domestic ore (ilmenite or slag). ARPA-E is currently exploring innovative manufacturing processes to produce high quality and robust titanium parts for a range of applications. Titanium is a superior light metal with a high strength to weight ratio (120 kNm/kg), superior corrosion resistance, and can withstand high temperatures. Its high material and manufacturing costs have historically limited its use to the aerospace and defense industries. However, recent developments in the production of low cost powder open disruptive opportunities to transform conventional manufacturing so that Titanium is used as a ubiquitous structural metal.  In addition to many other uses, there is an excellent opportunity ahead to explore the use of low cost Titanium for vehicle (ground and air) lightweighting, which has potential to save 4 Quadrillion BTU’s in U.S. fuel energy savings per year. There are many science and technology challenges to be worked out prior to the widespread adoption of Ti powder for manufacturing, and a coordinated multi-institutional research effort with expertise within multiple disciplines is needed to realize the full potential for ubiquitous Ti manufacturing.


Fang, Z. Zak (October 2015) A Novel Energy Efficient Low Cost Chemical Pathway for Titanium Production, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

Online Proceedings not available at the request of the speaker.
The developments of energy efficient, low cost titanium metal production processes have challenged the metallurgical industry and research community around the world for several decades. The strong affinity of titanium to oxygen dictates that the conventional Ti metal production technologies, namely the Kroll or the Hunter processes, are energy-intensive. In this presentation, a new approach that is designed to minimize energy consumption and overall cost for Ti production is discussed. The overall approach is based on the integration of a series of unit processes. The key steps include production of purified TiO2 , Mg reduction in the presence of hydrogen to form porous TiH2, and Ca de-oxygenation to achieve an oxygen content less than 0.15wt%. It has been demonstrated that the high purity Ti powder can be produced directly from upgraded titanium slag (UGS) without the high temperature processes such as the chlorination. This approach can be used to produce Ti metal powder with both high purity and low oxygen. The purity of Ti, or the impurity contents of the powder produced using this process, meets the specifications by ASTM for Ti sponge.


PerezJordi (October 2015) Fluidized Bed Processes For Production Of Metal Alloys And Composites, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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SRI International has developed several fluidized bed processes for the production of feedstock powders for powder metallurgy. The materials that we produced include single metals, metal alloys, ceramics and metal-ceramic composites. Ti alloys are some of the most challenging materials to produce in fluidized beds, in a process that uses titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as the Ti source and hydrogen as the reducing agent. In this presentation we will discuss some thermochemical considerations, lab-scale data and lessons learned during scale-up of the pure thermal Ti production process. In addition to this, we will discuss the Multi-Arc Fluidized Bed Reactor (MAFBR), a variation of the technology that incorporates electrical arcs to activate the chemistry in a plasma-like environment at atmospheric pressure. Results of a recent ARPA-E funded project will be discussed, demonstrating two main improvements in the process: a dramatic reduction in the temperature required for reduction of TiCl4, and suppression of etching caused by back-reaction with the hydrogen chloride reaction products. Next steps to exploit the advantages of this MAFBR approach will be also be discussed.


ErdelBerthold (October 2015) The Shift to Material-centered Manufacturing, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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My prediction, about twelve years ago, that the attributes of “Light-Small-Simple-Fast-Smart and Strong” will permeate all of manufacturing turned out to be what still constitutes today’s manufacturing networks.  Then the “Lean”-principles started to dominate the efforts on the production floors, followed by government mandates of “Green” and more recently “Blue” (minimizing energy consumption during production).  Spurred on by the need to become more fuel-efficient, operate lighter, faster, safer and lower the environmental footprint, the Aerospace Industry, even more so than Automotive, has begun to turn to ever more advanced material.

Innovative manufacturing processes have part material at the center of it all to secure parts, components and subassemblies that can meet the stringent demands for increased strength, minimum weight, higher temperature resistance, less maintenance, lower noise level and safe, extended service life.  Given these characteristics and the necessary product changes and enhancements in form and function clearly moves advanced manufacturing from machine-centered to material-centered regimes.  Titanium, undeniably, is the material of choice for aircraft structures and engine parts.


Faller, Kurt (October 2015) The Largest Cost Reduction Opportunity for Titanium Manufacturing in a Quarter Century, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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A significant factor leading to the high cost of titanium mill products is the relatively poor yield from ingot to finished mill product. The greatest contributor to this yield loss is the conditioning required to remove cooling cracks and alpha case caused by each thermo-mechanical processing step (forging, rolling, extrusion or hot forming). Conditioning, typically lathe/bar turning, Midwest grinding or re-roll slab and plate grinding and milling, often in conjunction with HF-HNO3 pickling, must follow each hot working step to eliminate crack propagation during subsequent processing. All surface metal is removed down to the bottom of the deepest cooling cracks, resulting in yield loss of approximately 4% to 7% per conditioning step.

In contrast to traditional conditioning, the MetCon patented and patent pending, environmentally green, electrochemical processes retain the majority of the surface bulk metal while opening cooling cracks and blunting the crack tips while simultaneously improving cycle times and reducing hydrogen absorption.

MetCon-conditioned materials are sufficiently smooth to pass immersion ultrasonic inspection, and deliver a 3% to 5% yield improvement per step compared to traditional conditioning methods. With three to five hot working and corresponding conditioning steps between ingot and finished mill products, the MetCon process can cumulatively provide mill producers with 10% to 20% final product yield improvement—cost advantage or bottom line improvement—versus conventional processing.


Ito, Yoshinori (October 2015) Technologies For Reliable Titanium Alloy Forgings Focusing On Ultrasonic Inspection In Aerospace, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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Titanium alloy forgings are widely used in critical rotating parts for aircraft engine applications. Sophisticated technologies of forging simulation, process design and inspection are necessary to meet required mechanical properties and strict requirement for flight safety. Ultrasonic inspection is used for detection of defects. It is well known that the inspection for titanium alloy forgings is difficult because ultrasonic backscattering noise due to microstructural features can mask reflection from the defects. Thus, deep understanding and control technologies of the backscattering noise are important to achieve higher ultrasonic inspectability of the forgings. Kobe Steel, Ltd. has these technologies essential for manufacturing titanium alloy forgings as well as the latest production facilities for forging, heat treatment and inspection in aerospace industry. This presentation will focus on our technologies necessary to provide reliable titanium alloy forgings especially for ultrasonic inspection.


Cross, Paul; Vanasse, Brian, (October 2015) , Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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Vulcan Engineering Co. in conjunction with Norton Abrasives will present a joint presentation on the most recent advances in titanium conditioning methods and grinding media as it relates to material removal and productivity. Vulcan will address the various types of equipment and controls used throughout the conditioning process which allows the user to achieve more controlled material removal, higher efficiencies, and result in a more satisfactory end product. Vulcan will also address the advances made in material handling equipment. This allows the user to increase productivity while decreasing manpower.  Norton will address the recent advances in the bonding elements as well as abrasive media used in titanium alloy grinding. These advances all affect material removal as well as decreased consumable costs for the user.


Dolbec, Richard (October 2015) Recycling Spherical Powders, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

The performances of metal powder-based additive manufacturing (AM) technologies like electron-beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) greatly depend on powder characteristics such as flowability, packing density and purity. Particles exhibiting a perfectly spherical morphology largely contribute at optimizing both the flowability and the packing density of a powder. However, not all the powder manufacturing processes succeed at optimizing these critical characteristics for the AM needs since satellites, pores and/or particles of irregular morphologies are regularly observed in commercial powders. Furthermore, powder flowability, packing density and purity can be altered to different extent by the AM process and this is known to limit the recyclability of the powders. The inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) proprietary technology developed by Tekna over the last 25 years has the capability to recycle powders by transforming particles of various shape into perfect spheres. Also, Tekna has developed a proprietary classification process specifically for removing ultrafine particles within a powder, allowing thereby the re-use of powders in AM processes that would otherwise be out of specification in terms of powder purity and flowability. Tekna’s ICP technology will be briefly described and case studies with powders made with different manufacturing processes will be presented.


Greenfield Stone, Stacie (October 2015) Titanium Recycling Processes, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

(Presented by Jerry Faitelson)  A review the scrap titanium recycling process, focusing on the rigorous aerospace quality requirements but also touching on the specifications of other industries that utilize titanium scrap.


Lee, Robert (October 2015) Titanium Swarf Does Not Belong in Landfill, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Titanium Swarf, from processing operations such as grinding, sawing, machining and contaminated fines are likely to be defined as extremely hazardous substances. Generating, storing or processing such substances may require a Process Hazard Analysis “PHA” in accordance with NFPA standards. Improved technology allows the safe transport and recycling of such substances keeping them out of landfills.


Pastushan, Nicholas  (October 2015) A Lessor’s View of Aircraft Markets and Global Economics, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Zimm, Peter (October 2015) Aerospace Market Outlook and Supply Chain Trends, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Ensley, Michael (October 2015) How Could Leadership Style Impact the Commoditization of Titanium, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Hays, George (October 2015) A Life-Cycle Approach to Capital Projects, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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The economic basis for capital projects is generally focused on perceived economic benefit versus first cost – the cost to design and fully implement the project. Part of that plan is the design life of the project. Initial budgets are frequently established based on historical data that has been adjusted for inflation. But none of those data may be specific to the actual       project. Funding commitments are generally made at that point in the process and it becomes very difficult to increase the initial budget once it is established. One of the major problems with this approach is that it does not consider the economics of maintaining the viability of project over its entire life-cycle.

This presentation puts forth the argument that a life-cycle approach is a better way to plan and implement a capital project. A life-cycle approach incorporates maintenance costs, down time, lost production and other economic factors into the initial project. It provides an opportunity to consider the benefits of using materials, methods and processes which may be more expensive on a first cost basis but have significant benefits over the economic life of the project.

Where technically applicable, titanium would significantly benefit from a life-cycle approach to capital projects.




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Schumerth, Dennis (October 2015) Case Studies Supporting a Titanium-Tubed Heat Exchanger Upgrade from Copper Nickel, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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Often referred to as yellow or red metal, the extensive family of copper and their comprehensive alloy variants have found significant application within the form of tubular products for shell & tube heat exchangers.  These genesis alloys were some of the first to see service in a wide variety of applications including large powerplant steam surface condensers, miscellaneous BOP (balance of plant) equipment, general heat exchanger service and extensive and varied applications throughout the powerplant cycle and CPI (Chemical Process Industry).  Low cost and availability, good heat transfer characteristics and ease of fabrication were some of the initial qualities that propelled this material into general usage.  However, in recent years, limited availability, volatile costs and associated issues connected with copper pick-up/discharge, toxicity and corrosion susceptibility issues due to changing water chemistry have identified the materials Achilles’ heel.


Lantzke, Gary (October 2015) Wear Resistant Options for High Pressure Acid Leaching (HPAL) Applications, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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Callidus Welding Solutions (CWS) specialises in providing services to the High Pressure Acid Leaching (HPAL) and Pressure Oxidization (POX) industries.  These processes use temperature, pressure, acid and oxygen within an autoclave environment to break down low grade ore into pregnant liquor for chemical extraction.

Titanium is commonly used within these plants as linings of pressure vessels, vessel internals and in piping systems.  

For many of the applications within these processes, Titanium provides satisfactory corrosion resistance but suffers from high wear rates.  CWS have therefore, developed a suite of solutions designed to enhance the wear resistance of Titanium.

The repair and modification of equipment to incorporate the use of reaction bonded, nitrile bonded and sintered silicon carbides ceramics, the use of atmospheric plasma thermal spray ceramic coatings and the in-house development of Titanium Nitride surface modification has given CWS an edge over our competitors.

This presentation will cover the development of Titanium Nitride surface modification - how it came about, initial field testing, current usage and applications. Examples will be presented of how different hardness and depth profiles can be utilized across a range of different applications and how combinations of approaches can be utilized for advantage.


PEDEFERRI, MariaPia (October 2015) Advances in the Development of Surfaces Functionalities of Titanium, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Titanium anodic oxidation is a powerful technique for tailoring surfaces properties. The anodic oxidation consists of polarizing titanium by imposing a current flow between the titanium specimen and a counterelectrode. The process parameters which most determine the properties of the growing oxide are the electrochemical ones as well as the electrolyte specifications and, of course, the composition of the metal itself and its surface conditions. Tuning the operating process parameters it is possible to obtain TiO2 films that differ in terms of thickness, morphologies,and oxide structures. A precise and robust control of the anodizing process is of fundamental importance in tailoring properties of anodic TiO2 surfaces for serveral functional properties, as corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and photoactivated preoperties, as well as aesthetical properties. The work is aimed at providing a survey of techniques and parameters that allow to achieve controlled oxide features as a function of the desired field of application.



Gorham, Rob (October 2015) America Makes, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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Advancing the adoption of technology innovation in metallic Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a key part of the overall mission established by the federal government for America Makes, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute.  America Makes’ approach in answering this charge is through the execution of applied research projects focusing on technical areas of Design, Process, Materials, Value Chain Integration, and Additive Manufacturing Genome.  By collaborating with nationally recognized leaders in over 140 member organizations, America Makes is deliberately addressing multiple AM metallic material systems and manufacturing process needs.  America Makes will discuss the National Additive Manufacturing Roadmap and overviews of the current projects.


Dehoff, Ryan (October 2015) In-situ Process Monitoring and Big Data Analysis for Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

In the last decade powder bed based electron beam melting has emerged as a potential technique for fabricating larger volume parts at relatively higher deposition rates compared to laser based AM techniques. However, the relation between process parameters and formation of defects such as porosities and layer delamination are not clearly understood. The MDF is developing in-situ process monitoring techniques using both near infrared (IR) imaging and high speed IR imaging that allows capturing information from each layer as it is deposited.  The in-situ process data is being implemented into Dream 3D ®, a 3-dimensional visualization tool, in conjunction with the Air Force Research Laboratory to enable visual representation of the build data from electron beam AM technologies.  Additional information related to process intent data and post inspection data such as x-ray computed tomography and microstructural information could also be implemented into the 3-dimensional framework.  Big data analysis techniques are then used to quantify the nature and volume fraction of the defects. These data analysis techniques also allow for mapping of geometric inaccuracies and surface roughness in the part and their variations as compared to the input CAD models. The presentation will discuss the advances made by MDF in data analytics for AM techniques till date.


Kingsbury, Alexandra (October 2015) Doing More with Australian Titanium, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

The CSIRO, Australia’s premier research organisation, has long had a strategic focus on value adding titanium metal. This is being achieved through the development of novel titanium production processes and activity in additive manufacturing. In this talk, Ms Kingsbury will provide an overview of strategy to bring these two efforts together and how this has the ability to radically change the cost paradigm of additive manufacturing. She will also outline the active industry engagement program running out of CSIRO’s additive manufacturing facility ‘Lab 22’, and describe how that activity is driving research activities towards commercial outcomes.


Fox, Stephen (October 2015) Recent Developments in Melting and Casting Technologies for Titanium Alloys, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

Over the last twenty years, melting and casting technologies for titanium alloys has continued to evolve and adapt in response to industry needs. In the primary titanium industry, efficient use of different raw materials has been enabled by the widespread adoption of cold hearth and skull melting while numerical simulation and advanced control methodologies have supported evolutionary changes in vacuum arc remelting (VAR) methods. The casting industry has also seen evolutionary changes and adapted plasma melting, VAR and induction skull melt methods to facilitate the successful introduction of gamma aluminides. With the widespread interest in powder technologies and additive manufacturing there are new melting and solidification challenges to be addressed. This paper will summarize recent changes in the melting capacity and technology in the industry and highlight some of the advances in numerical methods for the simulation of solidification and discuss some of the requirements and challenges to be addressed.


Branscomb, Tom (October 2015) Shell Materials and Casting Methods to Minimize Alpha Case Formation, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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Investment Casting of Titanium alloys can be done with various primary, intermediate, and backup shell materials.  There are also different methods of casting these alloys.  Recommendations are given to minimize Alpha Case formation.  Two case studies using Zirconia and Yttria prime layers of the shell are presented with measured Alpha Case results.  The economics of using Yttria vs. Zirconia is discussed.


Jackson, Christopher (October 2015) γ-PAM: Casting of Near Net Shape Titanium Aluminide Alloy Ingots, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

Titanium Aluminides are finding expanded applications in both the aerospace and automotive markets. However, this demand has also highlighted many of the issues associated with the production of these alloys, not least of which are material segregation and shrinkage porosity especially in the production of small diameter round bars. Further contributing to these difficulties, melting systems and the accompanying processes are based on historical context whereby multiple vacuum arc remelt (VAR) steps are performed using compacted electrodes. Needless to say, this is problematic at best and doesn’t really solve the underlying issues with the alloy.

Retech, working with Hanseatische Waren Handelsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG in Germany, advances have been made that allow for production of small diameter, homogeneous bars in lengths up to 1.2 meters using a plasma arc melting (PAM) process. This work has further yielded consistent, fine grain structure and 100% dense material without the need for subsequent VAR melting cycles.


Slinkert, Nathaniel(October 2015) γ-PAM: Casting of Near Net Shape Titanium Aluminide Alloy Ingots, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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(Presented by John McKellar)
Historically, cold hearth melting systems are configured to target a single ingot or slab mold. In such designs, a lengthy turnaround time is required before subsequent ingot melt cycles can begin. For near net-shape targets, a single multi-strand mold is often utilized to increase productivity. However, in their attempts to maximize throughput, few titanium producers give consideration to the application of hearth configurations that target multiple ingot, slab and/or multi-strand molds. This presentation introduces alternative hearth melting systems which enhance production flexibility while increasing throughput.

Kiese, Jurgen (October 2015)New Class of Oxidation-resistant, Microstructure-stabilized & Cold-workable Ti Alloys for Exhaust, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

leading to a degradation of their mechanical properties. In exhaust applications in automotive or aerospace engineering, products are often manufactured by cold-deformation like deep-drawing or rolling which is normally difficult in oxidation-resistant titanium alloys due to the presence of titanium-silicides.

Therefore, in the current study, titanium alloys based on CP-Titanium Grade 1S (soft grade) were developed showing (1) improved oxidation resistance due to a concerted addition of silicon, iron and niobium, (2) microstructure stability by the precipitation of hafnium-silicides mainly on the grain boundaries and (3) good cold-deformation properties.

An industrial scale-up of the alloy production has been successfully performed. An ingot of 4 metric tons of the alloy Ti 0.4Si 0.1Fe 0.05Nb 0.1Hf has been produced by vacuum arc remelting; the resulting round bar of diameter 960 mm has been hot forged and stripped to a 3.5 metric tons slab which has been hot-rolled to a thickness of 4.8 mm. Subsequently cold-rolled strip was produced in thicknesses of 0.9 mm and 1.2 mm in a width of 750 mm. Other thicknesses can be rolled on costumer request.

The industrial production route was developed so that the new class of Ti-Si-Fe-Nb-Hf-alloys is now ready for application in exhaust systems of planes or cars at minimum 800°C.

Hostetler, James (October 2015) Titanium and the Auto Racing Industry, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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How is titanium used in the auto racing industry, and how has that changed over the years? Can the weight and strength of various materials affect a vehicle and therefore the outcome of a race? The racing community is constantly making new discoveries and improvements for exploiting titanium in a variety of ways, for the goal to build the “ultimate race car”. TMS Titanium has partnered with many drivers and even entire series to provide the titanium they need to keep moving forward and go on to win races. Driven by our passion for the auto racing industry, we help teams increase performance and meet the critical weight regulations imposed across different racing series.

This brief presentation delves into the history of titanium and auto racing, and how TMS has become an important contributor to this particular industry. We’ll also discuss very specific ways titanium can be used, and some very exciting insight into what is on the horizon for auto racing and titanium.

TMS Titanium is a leading supplier and stocking distributor of titanium mill products. Our focus is to consistently provide the titanium our customers need, to keep their production moving forward – whether that production is for a race team, medical product, high-end aerospace component or general manufacturing.


Withers, Graham (October 2015) Rethinking the Automotive Uses of Titanium as a Result of the New Emissions Paradigm, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) on June 15, 2015, jointly proposed standards for medium duty and heavy duty vehicles that would improve fuel efficiency and cut carbon pollution to reduce the impacts of climate change, while bolstering energy security and encouraging manufacturing innovation.

Emission standards are already in place for model years 2014-2018, which alone will result in reductions of 270 million metric tons and save vehicle owners more than $50 billion in fuel costs.

The proposal also builds upon standards that the Administration has put in place for light duty vehicles, which are projected to reduce carbon pollution by 6 billion tons over the lifetime of vehicles sold, double fuel economy by 2025, and save consumers $1.7 trillion at the pump.

These standards are already delivering savings for American Truck Owners.

The proposed program is designed with separate performance based standards for four box trailer sub categories:

       Long-box dry vans

       Long-box refrigerated vans

       Short-box dry vans

       Short-box refrigerated vans

The EPA trailer standards would begin to take effect in Model Year 2018 for certain trailers, while NHTSA’s standards would be in effect as of 2021, with credits available for voluntary participation before that date.

Cost effective technologies for trailers, including aerodynamic devices, light weight construction, and self inflating tires etc. can significantly reduce total fuel consumption by tractor trailers, whilst providing a rapid payback.

Every 10 percent drop in truck weight reduces fuel use between 5 and 10 percent.

Generally, An empty truck makes up about one-third of the total weight of a fully loaded truck.

Lightweight metal alloys, metal matrix composites, and other lightweight components where appropriate can reduce empty truck (“tare”) weight”, improve fuel efficiency, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


Z. Zak Fang (October 2015) Powder Metallurgy Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with Wrought-like Microstructure and Mechanical Properties, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

Online Proceedings not available at the request of the speaker.
Titanium powder is typically sintered in high vacuum to achieve high density and low oxygen. Sintered materials usually have coarse grain size and lamellar structure in the case of sintered Ti-6Al-4V alloys. In this work, a novel process is designed to take advantage of both the higher sintered density for using TiH2 as raw material and the phase transformation induced by hydrogen that produces fine grain sizes. The process can produce near-fully dense (>99%Ti-6Al-4V) Ti materials with very fine grain size (~<1.0µm) in as-sintered state. The refined microstructure has advantages over coarse lamellar structure of conventional sintered Ti materials from the stand point of mechanical properties. The as-sintered Ti-6Al-4V can also be heat treated to obtain wrought-like microstructure and mechanical properties. This presents a new opportunity for low cost manufacturing of PM Ti materials with both static and fatigue mechanical properties equivalent to that of wrought Ti materials. This presentation will show the results of microstructure and mechanical properties of as-sintered, heat treated, and those with an additional gaseous-isostatic-forging-treatment (GIFT) processing. The results demonstrates that PM Ti-6Al-4V can be made to have equivalent mechancial, including fatigure, properties to that of wrough Ti.


Moxson, Vladimir (October 2015) Manufacturing of Hydrogenated Titanium Powders and Titanium Components for Critical Applications, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

An innovative process for manufacturing the hydrogenated titanium sponge and powder has been developed by ADMA Products, Inc. The ability to produce the titanium hydride powder and pre-alloyed titanium powder with extra-low impurity contents, consistent chemical composition, characteristics and quality was demonstrated.

Manufacturing of titanium alloy components with extra-low impurity contents (ELI Grades) for critical applications by low cost blended elemental powder metallurgy approach, that includes the room temperature consolidation (die-pressing or cold isostatic pressing) followed by sintering will be discussed. The low cost ADMA patented powder metallurgy processes provide the best combination of mechanical properties that meet the requirements of AMS specifications and exceed those obtained on identical titanium alloys, manufactured by conventional ingot metallurgy.


Withers, J.C. (October 2015) Electrolytic Ti Powder Production From Ore Sources, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Powdered titanium comes from a small fraction of sieved sponge, HDH processing of sponge with grinding or gas blown from a melt produced alloy billet.  The titanium powder making process utilizes ore from foreign sources which is chlorinated in a very high temperature fluid bed to make TiCl4, then vacuum distilled purified and then the TiCl4 reduced to sponge by Kroll processing.  Domestic ores of ilmenite or perovskite can be purified by known processing then carbothermically reduced to Ti2OC which can be chlorinated at low temperatures of 250-400°C to produce TiCl4 which can be electrolyzed in a fused salt to Ti powder, or the Ti2OC used as an anode in electrolysis to produce Ti powder.  It is also possible to add aluminum and vanadium precursors that codeposit with titanium to electrolytically produce the alloy powder Ti-6Al-4V.  The electrolysis process can be operated continuously to produce Ti powder at a lower cost than Kroll processed sponge including produce control size powder.  The cost of the electrolytic alloy powder can be substantially the same cost of sponge when the aluminum and vanadium cost is added in.  Electrolysis processing was scaled up and operated at the commercial demonstration stage on a continuous basis that verifies the potential of a low cost process to produce Ti powder or alloy powder.

Rosenberg, Edward (October 2015) Rapid Innovation for Titanium in Consumer Products Industry, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

Conrad, Regis (October 2015) Distinguished Guest Speaker, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Matt Schmink (October 2015) Ferrotitanium Demand Trends, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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The use of ferrotitanium and titanium scrap as an alloying additive in the production of carbon steel, stainless steel, and aluminum has become an integral part of the titanium mill products production spectrum.  The market for these titanium-bearing metals has grown into a large consumer of titanium units.  This presentation will discuss the applications of titanium in this sector and examine how global forces shaping the automotive and energy industries are impacting the production of titanium-bearing metals, especially as this use impacts the viability of titanium scrap.


Newman, Edward (October 2015) Scrap Outlook, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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This paper will focus on two main topics.  The first will trace the evolution of the movement of titanium scrap from the scrap generation point back to the various users of titanium scrap, focusing on titanium producers but also including steel and ferro titanium producers.  We will look at the various factors that have lead to this evolution including, technical advances, the implementation of buy back agreements, and industry consolidation.  We will also explore advances that have allowed for increased use of titanium scrap within the titanium industry and opportunities moving forward that could allow the titanium industry to capture a larger percentage of the overall scrap stream.


Perles, Terry (October 2015) Master Alloys Market Trends and Analysis, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.

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This paper will describe the role and market position of master alloy producers in the titanium alloy industry.  Key raw materials for master alloy production including molybdenum and vanadium will be analyzed in an effort to understand current market conditions for these critical materials and make an effort to project market conditions forward.  Opportunities for mutually beneficial collaboration between master alloy suppliers and titanium alloy producers will be outlined.


Folmer, Derek (October 2015) Rutile Economics: The Outlook for a Raw Material Critical to Manufacturing High Quality Sponge, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


Rutile is the key strategic raw material for the production of high quality sponge needed to produce components for critical applications. In this presentation Sierra Rutile will explain the economics behind expanding the operation to supply one quarter of the world’s production. Attendees will also learn about the factors affecting future rutile availability and gain an understanding of Sierra Rutile’s unique position as the only company focused on filling the world’s premium rutile requirements, both today and for the years to come.


McCoy, David (October 2015) Titanium Sponge, Presented at Titanium 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando, FL.


David McCoy is an experienced consultant to the global TiO2 and titanium sponge sectors. Mr McCoy regularly advises industry participants from miners through to global consumers on supply/demand, pricing, competitive landscape and strategic issues.  Mr McCoy has executed numerous due diligence programs on titanium feedstock, TiO2 pigment and sponge producers around the globe. He provides regular industry updates to the global financial community.

Benator, Barry P.E. CEM BENATECH, INC.  Life Cycle Costing Session (October 2015), Presented at TITANIUM USA 2015, Rosen Shingle Creek, Orlando FL.

Businesses and governments make important decisions based on financial benefits to their organizations.  This one-day course provides members and delegates of the International Titanium Association’s TITANIUM conference with knowledge and practical tools to help explain and prove to customers the financial benefits of the use of titanium over other metals.  The lecture focuses on sound financial comparisons of the strength, durability and other benefits of titanium. As a special benefit, the participants will receive a life cycle costing spreadsheet they can use to conduct LCC analyses for themselves and their customers.  

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