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Black Sand (E-Book Format)

Compliments of Kathleen Housley, Sims Metal Management

It took some of the best metallurgical minds of the twentieth century to turn black sand into titanium used in jets, deep-sea submersibles, replacements for human hips, even golf clubs. Until the 1930s, titanium was merely a laboratory curiosity, dangling before the eyes of metallurgists the prospect of great strength combined with light-weight but defying all their attempts to make it in quantity. Then on the eve of World War II, William Kroll, a brilliant Luxembourg scientist, developed a unique process. Forced to abandon his laboratory as the Nazis prepared to invade, he brought his knowledge to the United States where it became of crucial importance during the Cold War with the Soviet Union.

Convinced of the metal's value, the U.S. Armed Forces jump-started the titanium industry in the 1950s with huge amounts of Federal money. But titanium was both a dream and a nightmare, grudgingly yielding its secrets. Not until the top-secret spy plane, the SR-71 Blackbird, did the metal come of age. Black Sand: The History of Titanium is rich in human drama because titanium demanded maximum effort from a generation of metallurgists who proved themselves up to the task of fulfilling its spectacular promise. 


Titanium Facts

This quick and easy reference booklet covers the highlights of titanium. Real-life examples, fun facts and trivia, and industry details make up this specially designed pocket reference. Contains information regarding characteristics, properties, applications, history, production, and more.

Titanium: The Infinite Choice

A primer on titanium containing detailed information on physical metallurgy, characteristics, benefits of use, industry and consumer applications, history, production from start to finish, processing techniques, alloy explanations, and terminology. Over 15 charts and pictures including a complete production flow chart showing sponge production, melting, and mill products and castings.
  Now out of print, the RMI Metallography brochure continues
to serve as an excellent reference guide.
 Metallography of Titanium Alloys
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